Both in the chemical and in the steel industry there are many processes, based in reactions that need important additions of heating power in punctual working moments.

Depending on the reaction kinetics and on its exothermic or endothermic nature, this energy must be furnished only at the beginning of the process for the reaction to start, or during the whole operation time to cover its needs for power.

First of all, two factors have to be taken into account to design these equipment:

  • The requested thermal efficiency.
  • The working pressure.

Depending on the thermal efficiency, the equipment size and its complexity regarding the number of exchange elements will vary in such a way that if the efficiency is high, the equipment will be very big or will consist of many series-connected exchange elements.

On the other hand, depending on the working pressure, different constructive solutions may be adopted, such as a double shell, a tubes cage or even a coil, in the last resort.

According to their different application, these equipment could be classified as follows:

  • Start-up heaters

    They provide the initially needed heat for a certain reaction to happen (operation). In these equipment, heat exchange is mainly done by radiation, and they have a low thermal efficiency.

  • Preheaters

    They provide, in a continuous way, the necessary heat during the whole operation time. Their thermal efficiency is higher so that the heat exchange must be done both by radiation and convection. Their size is bigger whilst their specific consumption is lower.

Start-up heater installed in a copper pyrites roasting furnace

Start-up heater installed in a plant for sulphuric acid production


In the chemical and steel industry, as well as in special processes requiring an important addition of heat both punctually and continuously.


Heat exchange capacity: Up to 10.000.000 Kcal/h.

Air temperature increase: Up to 650 oC.

Air outlet temperature: Up to 500 oC with fuel-oil and 650 oC with diesel oil or natural gas.

Plant consisting of an air preheater and later heat recovery in the exhaust gases


Mam konto użytkownikaKalfrisa

Wprowadź swoją nazwę użytkownika i hasło aby się zalogować Weryfikacja tożsamości , aby uzyskać indywidualne stawki jeśli dotyczy